Methods, Processes to Convert Salt water into Fresh Drinking water

At present, the growing world population and fresh water scarcity concerns many people in the world. As the purified drinking water requirement is increasing in a high basis, it is very much necessary to know the water purification methods that help to convert salt water or sea water into drinking water or pure water. The listed below topics helps you to know thoroughly about it.

water purifiers

Reverse Osmosis (RO) water purification method:

In many countries, large scale Reverse osmosis water purification filters and equipments plays an important role in converting salt water to fresh drinking water. The process is very simple but costly. Sea water enters a high pressure pumps, then flows through the array of membranes that filter the salt water and other unwanted particles. In your home, the small types of Reverse osmosis filter equipments are very much necessary to get safe and pure drinking water. Some advantages of RO purifiers are,

  1. Easy maintenance and highly effective
  2. Low energy requirement for large scale drinking water plants

Distillation or Natural Desalination process:

This is a very effective method to purify water. This process is all about turning water into the vapor. The vapor is collected in its purest form. Distillation or Natural desalination process is widely used for salt production from sea water. Although it is widely used, it has some disadvantages over RO system.

  1. Not easy to maintain and consumes large amount of energy.

Solar still process:

Solar still process is the alternative energy process that helps to get pure water. It is usually used for rain, piped and well water. It is similar to distillation process (Evaporation and Condensation) but it is a green energy product that uses natural energy of the sun.


In this method, salt water is converted into pure water with the help of electrodes. When electrolysis process is applied to salt water, it produces hydrogen and oxygen. If recombined, it gives pure water as an output. However, this method is not suitable for large scale purposes, as the other resultant gas is chlorine which is toxic.

Electrodialysis(ED) process:

In this method, electrodes are placed in the polluted water or salt water. The electrodes attract the charged ions like sodium and chlorine, thus leaving the pure residual solution. Electricity is used to filter out salty substances. Therefore it is termed as Electrodialysis process.

Vacuum freezing process:

In this method, temperature is lowered to freezing point. When the water freezes, it prevents the salt from being included. With the melting of purified ice cubes, fresh water can be obtained. Although, Electrodialysis and Vacuum freezing methods are very effective solution to get fresh water, they are not commercially competitive with reverse osmosis and desalination process.

Ion exchange method:

It uses non-soluble ions to capture the soluble ions (salt) in water. This is similar to home water softeners. The output from this process would be pure drinking water.

Note: Some research processes were also undergone for converting salt water into fresh water such as,

  1. Ion channel polarization
  2. Remove salt from water using Nanotechnology

Readers can check these two types for their information resource.

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